Category: VMWare (page 7 of 7)

How to change ESX host root password

1. Shutdown and Reboot your VMware ESX Server

If you don’t know the VMware ESX Server root password, you don’t know any passwords for root-equivalent accounts, and your virtual center server also does not have it cached, the only way to change the root user password is to first shutdown / power off your VMware ESX Server.

2. Press “a” to modify the kernel arguments

As soon as you see the GRUB boot screen, press “a” to modify the kernel arguments, like this:

3. Enter single user mode

At the end of the kernel arguments command line, type “single” and press Enter, like this:

  4. Change the root password

Now, change the root password using the passwd command, like this:

You will need to enter the new root password twice.


5. Reboot the ESX Server

Once you have reset the root password, reboot the server to go back into multi-user mode.

6. Verify the new password

Once the system reboots, verify that the new root password works 🙂


vSphere 5 vRAM Licensing

The new licensing scheme is used in vSphere 5. Unlike in vSphere 4, where vRAM is not taken into consideration rather the number of cores per socket.

Let do a refresh. In vSphere 4, for Enterprise edition is entitled to 6 cores per physical processor per server. For Advanced/Enterprise Plus edition, is entitled to 12 cores per physical processor.

An example would be follows:
1 server with 2 physical CPU, each with 8 cores. This will require 2 x Enterprise Plus license.
If you apply 2 x Enterprise instead of Enterprise Plus license, only 6 cores per CPU will be used and 2 cores per CPU left idle.

Let’s talk about vSphere 5 licensing. Before we begin, vSphere 5 have removed Advanced edition. An customers who are on Advanced Edition on vSphere 4 will be upgrade to vSphere 5 Enterprise.

vRAM entitlement that is based on edition per physical CPU (no more limitation of number of cores). Its base on vRAM allocated. So what is vRAM different from physical RAM?

vRAM actually define the virtual memory that is allocated to any VM that is powered on. But there are misconception here that most customer have.

Consideration 1:
If you have a server with 128GB of RAM with 2 physical CPU, do I purchase 128GB of vRAM? The answer is No. In a normal setup, we often leave buffer of resource for HA or DRS in such this buffer does not have to take into considerations. Since allocated memory to a VM remain the same when HA or DRS kicked in you are not using twice as much the vRAM.

Consideration 2:
What if I need to increase the allocated vRAM to a VM once awhile? VMware will only use the average vRAM allocation per year. In such, occasional increase or even creation of a VM for testing for a short period and later destroyed or power off will not bridge your entitlement as long in average/year allocation does not exceed. This is possible as the license does not have a hard restriction on the server even though you do not have enough vRAM entitlement you are still able to allocate more than you have.

When planning your license, you do have to take note of the vRAM required minus the buffer used for HA where e..g N+1 is used. Of cause you can always buy additional license in the future when needed as well.

If HA was to kicked in when one host were to fail, the entitlement on the failed host will be available and shared by the remaining hosts. I.E to say the total vRAM entitlement will be pool together and shared within the cluster. Provided that the editions are the same.

Taking the same example of the physical server as above:

1 server with 2 physical CPUs (cores is not a concern), 128GB physical RAM.
Since there are 2 physical CPUs, you would need 2 x any edition license.
Then we will take note of the vRAM now.
If you are on Essential Plus license, you will be need 2 x Essential Plus which entitles you to 32×2=64GB vRAM.

Say you intend to have 100GB of vRAM for use taking consideration for furture VMs and leaving 28GB as buffer. We will be short of 36GB. Then you will need to get 2 x Essential Plus license to top up as 2x32GB is only 64GB of vRAM.

Say you are into Enterprise license, you will still need 2 x Enterprise = 96 x 2=192GB of vRAM. In such, you have more than enough. In such, you can even increase the physical RAM without purchasing additional vRAM license.

Consideration 3:
Now you may ask why do I have to buy so many Essential+ from the example above? Can I just buy another edition to top up? The answer is No and not a recommended practice. If a host is entitled to a different edition, the entitlement cannot be shared. In such, the host that is assigned to the different edition license will be standalone.

Consideration 4:
What if I have a VM that requires more than 96GB of vRAM that Enterprise Plus entitles?
If you are on Enterprise Plus, the VM can be allocate more than 96GB of vRAM without any penalty. Its 96GB or above.

Consideration 5:
What if you are using View won’t I have to purchase lots of license?
Answer is No. For View, vRAM is unlimited license. It will be Desktop license which has unlimited vRAM entitlement.

IMPORTANT: Due to the different licensing entitlement for vRAM for Desktop and infrastructure, it is strongly recommended not to mixed both environments together.

I have the table of the license entitlement below:

vSphere Edition

vRAM Entitlement/CPU

vSphere Enterprise Plus 96 GB
vSphere Enterprise 64 GB
vSphere Standard 32 GB
vSphere Essentials Plus 32 GB
vSphere Essentials 32 GB
vSphere Hypervisor Free Edition 32 GB
vSphere Desktop Unlimited

Thanks to :

ESXi and ESX Architectures Compared

VMware ESX Architecture.

In the original ESX architecture, the virtualization kernel (referred to as the vmkernel) is augmented with a management partition known as the console operating system (also known as COS or service console). The primary purpose of the Console OS is to provide a management interface into the host. Various VMware management agents are deployed in the Console OS, along with other infrastructure service agents (e.g. name service, time service, logging, etc). In this architecture, many customers deploy other agents from 3rd parties to provide particular functionality, such as hardware monitoring and system management. Furthermore, individual admin users log into the Console OS to run configuration and diagnostic commands and scripts.


    • VMware agents run in Console OS
    • Nearly all other management functionality provided by agents running in the Console OS
    • Users must log into Console OS in order to run commands for configuration and diagnostics

VMware ESXi Architecture.

In the ESXi architecture, the Console OS has been removed and all of the VMware agents run directly on the vmkernel. Infrastructure services are provided natively through modules included with the vmkernel. Other authorized 3rd party modules , such as hardware drivers and hardware monitoring components, can run in vmkernel as well. Only modules that have been digitally signed by VMware are allowed on the system, creating a tightly locked-down architecture. Preventing arbitrary code from running on the ESXi host greatly improves the security of the system.

  • VMware agents ported to run directly on VMkernel
  • Authorized 3rd party modules can also run in Vmkernel. These provide specific functionality
    • Hardware monitoring
    • Hardware drivers
  • VMware components and third party components can be updated independently
  • The “dual-image” approach lets you revert to prior image if desired
  • Other capabilities necessary for integration into an enterprise datacenter are provided natively
  • No other arbitrary code is allowed on the system

What is the difference between ESX and ESXi

Capability  ESX 4.0 ESX 4.1 ESXi 4.0 ESXi 4.1
Service Console Present Present Removed Removed
Admin/config CLIs COS + vCLI COS + vCLI PowerCLI + vCLI PowerCLI + vCLI
Advanced Troubleshooting COS COS Tech Support Mode Tech Support Mode
Scripted Installation Supported Supported Not Supported Supported
Boot from SAN Supported Supported Not Supported Supported
SNMP Supported Supported Supported (limited) Supported (limited)
Active Directory 3rd party in COS Integrated Not Supported Integrated
HW Monitoring 3rd party agents in COS 3rd party agents in COS CIM providers CIM providers
Web Access Supported Not Supported Not Supported Not Supported
Serial Port Connectivity Supported Supported Not Supported Not Supported
Jumbo Frames Supported Supported Supported Supported

Configuration difference between ESX 3.5 to vSphere?

Virtual Machine VI 3.5 vSphere 4
Number of virtual CPUs per virtual machine     4     8
RAM per virtual machine   64 GB   255 GB
NICs per VM   4     10
Concurrent remote console sessions    10      40


ESX host VI 3.5 vSphere 4
Hosts per storage volume   32    64
Fibre Channel paths to LUN   32    16
NFS Datastores    32    64
Hardware iSCSI initiators per host    2     4
Virtual CPUs per host    192    512
Virtual Machines per host    170    320
Logical processors per host    32    64
RAM per host 256 GB    1 TB
Standard vSwitches per host   127    248
Virtual NICs per standard vSwitch 1,016    4,088
Resource pools per host   512    4,096
Children per resource pool   256    1,024
Resource pools per cluster   128     512

How to update ESX host name and Ip address.

1. Navigate to “vi /etc/hosts”

Add the below line  to the file, first the IP address followed by the ESX host name as shown below. ESX002


2. Navigate to  “vi /etc/sysconfig/network” and update ESX host name in the second line of the file as shown below.





You would need to restart the network service to implement the change, by issuing the below command.

service network restart

Paul Maritz (CEO of VMWARE)

Paul Maritz (born 1955) is CEO of VMware Corporation (NYSE:VMW), and a past senior executive at Microsoft.

Born and raised in Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), his family later moved to South Africa where he was schooled at Highbury Preparatory School and Hilton College. He received a B.Sc. in Computer Science from the University of Natal, and a B.Sc. (Hons) degree, also in Computer Science, from the University of Cape Town in 1977.










After finishing his graduate studies, Maritz had a programming job with Burroughs and later became a researcher at the University of St. Andrews in Scotland, before moving to Silicon Valley in 1981 to join Intel.

He worked for Intel for five years, including developing early tools to help developers write software for the then-new x86 platform, before joining Microsoft in 1986.

From 1986 to 2000 he worked at Microsoft, leaving as executive vice president of the Platforms Strategy and Developer Group and part of the 5-person executive management team. He was often said to be the third-ranking executive, behind Bill Gates and Steve Ballmer. He was responsible for essentially all of Microsoft’s desktop and server software, including such major initiatives as the development of Windows 95, Windows NT, and Internet Explorer.

He then founded, and was CEO of Pi Corporation, a company backed by Warburg Pincus. When this was acquired by EMC in February 2008, Maritz briefly became President and General Manager of EMC Corporation’s Cloud Computing division, before being appointed CEO of VMware (a public company majority-owned by EMC), on July 8, 2008 – replacing co-founder and CEO Diane Greene.

He sponsors third-world development projects and is the chairman of the board of the Grameen Foundation.

VMWARE History

VMware, Inc. (NYSE: VMW) is a provider of virtualization software. The company was founded in 1998 and is based in Palo Alto, California. The Company is majority owned by EMC Corporation (NYSE: EMC).

VMware’s desktop software runs on Microsoft Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X, while VMware’s enterprise software hypervisors for servers, VMware ESX and VMware ESXi are bare-metal embedded Hypervisors that run directly on server hardware without requiring an additional underlying operating system.



In 1998, VMware was founded by Diane Greene, Mendel Rosenblum, Scott Devine, Edward Wang, and Edouard Bugnion. Greene and Rosenblum, who are married, first met while at Berkeley. Edouard Bugnion remained the chief architect and CTO of VMware until 2005, and went on to found Nuova Systems (now part of Cisco).

The company has its headquarters in Palo Alto, California, United States, and established an R&D Center in Cambridge, Massachusetts, as well as one at the Time Warner Center in New York City, in 2005. VMware software runs on Windows and on Linux, and made its debut on Mac OS X in December, 2006. Their customers include all 100 of the Fortune 100 companies.

VMware operated throughout 1998 in stealth mode with roughly 20 employees by the end of that year. The company was launched officially in February 1999 at the DEMO Conference organized by Chris Shipley.

VMware delivered its first product, VMware Workstation, in May 1999 and entered the server market in 2001 with VMware GSX Server (hosted) and VMware ESX Server (hostless).In 2003 VMware launched VMware Virtual Center, the VMotion and Virtual SMP technology. 64-bit support appeared in 2004. The company was also acquired by EMC Corporation that same year for $625 million.

In June 2006, VMware acquired privately-held Akimbi Systems.

In August 2007, EMC Corporation released 10% of the company’s shares in VMware in an initial public offering on the New York Stock Exchange. The stock debuted at 29 USD per share and closed the day at 51 USD.

On July 8, 2008, VMware co-founder, president and CEO Diane Greene was unexpectedly fired by the VMware Board of Directors and replaced by Paul Maritz, a retired 14-year Microsoft veteran who was heading EMC’s cloud computing business unit.[14] In the same news release VMware stated that 2008 revenue growth will be “modestly below the previous guidance of 50% growth over 2007.” As a result, market price of VMware dropped nearly 25%. Then on September 10, 2008, Rosenblum, the company’s chief scientist, resigned from VMware.

On September 16, 2008, VMware announced that they are collaborating with Cisco to provide joint data center solutions. One of the first results of this is the Cisco Nexus 1000V, a distributed virtual software switch that will be an integrated option in the VMware infrastructure.

VMware acquired Tungsten Graphics, a company with core expertise in 3D graphics driver development on November 26, 2008.

On August 10, 2009, VMware announced the acquisition of SpringSource, a leader in enterprise and web application development and management. The acquisition is seen by the industry as a strategic move of VMware to become a leader in offering Platform as a Service (PaaS). The acquisition also resulted in the expansion of VMware’s education services portfolio by the inclusion of SpringSource University and its authorized training partner – SpringPeople Technologies.

On Tuesday, January 12, 2010, VMware acquired Zimbra, an open-source collaboration software tool, from Yahoo.

On Thursday, May 6, 2010, VMware acquired GemStone, to be operated under VMware’s SpringSource division.

ESXi Installable Releases

Version Release Date Build # Download Link Release Notes Link
4.1 Update 1 2011-02-10 348481 Download Release Notes
4.1 2010-07-13 260247 Download Release Notes
4.0 Update 3 2011-05-05 398348 Download Release Notes
4.0 Update 2 2010-06-10 261974 Download Release Notes
4.0 Update 1 2009-11-19 208167 Download Release Notes
4.0 2009-05-21 164009 Download Release Notes
3.5 Update 5 2009-12-03 207095 Download Release Notes
3.5 Update 4 2009-03-30 153875 Download Release Notes
3.5 Update 3 2008-11-06 123629 Download Release Notes
3.5 Update 2 (Emerg. Fix) 2008-08-13 110271 Download Release Notes
3.5 Update 2 (Orig.) 2008-07-25 103909 N/A N/A
3.5 Update 1 2008-04-10 82664 Download Release Notes
3.5 2008-01-10 70348 Download Release Notes

ESX Releases:

Version Release Date Build # Download Link Release Notes Link
4.1 Update 1 2011-02-10 348481 Download Release Notes
4.1 2010-07-13 260247 Download Release Notes
4.0 Update 3 2011-05-05 398348 Download Release Notes
4.0 Update 2 2010-06-10 261974 Download Release Notes
4.0 Update 1 2009-11-19 208167 Download Release Notes
4.0 2009-05-21 164009 Download Release Notes
3.5 Update 5 2009-12-03 207095 Download Release Notes
3.5 Update 4 2009-03-30 153875 Download Release Notes
3.5 Update 3 2008-11-06 123630 Download Release Notes
3.5 Update 2 (Emerg. Fix) 2008-08-13 110268 Download Release Notes
3.5 Update 2 (Orig.) 2008-07-25 103908 N/A N/A
3.5 Update 1 2008-04-10 82663 Download Release Notes
3.5 2007-12-10 64607 Download Release Notes
3.0.3 2008-08-08 104629 Download Release Notes
3.0.2 Update 1 2007-10-29 61618 Download Release Notes
3.0.2 2007-07-31 52542 Download Release Notes
3.0.1 2006-10-06 32039 Download Release Notes
3.0 2006-06-15 27701 Download Release Notes
2.5.5 2007-10-08 57619 Download Release Notes
2.5.4 2006-10-5 32233 Download Release Notes
2.5.3 2006-4-13 22981 Download Release Notes
2.5.2 2005-9-15 16390 Download Release Notes
2.5.1 2005-6-20 14182 N/A N/A
2.5.0 2004-11-29 11343 Download Release Notes
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